The state of South Australia will enter an immediate six-day lockdown after community cases were detected in Adelaide for the first time in six months on Sunday. There are now 36 cases in the state.
Authorities say the “circuit breaker” measures were necessary to stop the virus spreading “at the beginning”.
Australia has previously also responded aggressively to small outbreaks. Various state governments have at times closed parts of the economy, enforced border restrictions and other measures to stop the virus spreading.
The lockdown, to begin at midnight on Wednesday, comes just weeks after neighbouring state Victoria beat a second wave, which caused about 800 deaths.
Under the rules, people in South Australia must stay at home and not leave for exercise. Shops, restaurants, cafes and pubs will remain closed, with schools only opening for the children of essential workers.